ACTIVITIES AND KEYS LESSON 4

 

PRE-REQUISITES ACTIVITIES

 

4. A DRAW AND LABEL

ACCORDING TO WHAT YOU HAVE READ AND LISTENED TO, DRAW THE 3 DIFFERENT ATOMIC MODELS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER. THEN LABEL THEM

 

                                                                                                                                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                            

 

 

 

4.B COMPLETE THE TABLE GIVING SOME INFORMATION ABOUT POSITION AND NATURE OF THE ELEMENTS MENTIONED

 

PLUM PUDDING MODEL

RUTHERFORD MODEL

Discovered by:

Discovered  by:

Nucleus:

Nucleus:

Electrons:

Electrons

Charge:

Charge:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1 COMPLETE THE TEXT: DALTON

 

John Dalton (1766-1844)

John Dalton developed an atomic theory in the 1800s. He did experiments, worked …………… some atomic …………… and invented symbols for atoms and molecules. His most important conclusions are summarised below:

·         All …………… is made of atoms

·         Atoms cannot be ………….. down into anything …………..

·         All the atoms of a particular element are ……………l to each other and different from the atoms of other elements

·         Atoms are …………… in a chemical reaction

·         …………… are formed when two or more different kinds of atoms join together

Dalton's theory was developed and changed as new evidence was discovered.

 

4.2 FILL IN THOMSON

JJ Thomson's discovery of the electron

JJ Thompson discovered the …………… in 1897. This showed that the atom contained smaller……………, whereas Dalton had thought that atoms could not be broken down into anything simpler.

4.3 FILL IN RUTHERFORD

Rutherford's nuclear atom

In 1911 Ernest Rutherford used …………… evidence to show that an atom must contain a …………… nucleus. This was further evidence that an atom contained smaller pieces.

4.4 FILL IN BOHR

Bohr's electron orbits

Niels Bohr further developed Rutherford's …………… atom model. He used experimental evidence to support the idea that electrons occupy particular orbits or …………… around the nucleus of an atom.

The development of the theory of atomic structure is an example of:

·         How a theory may change as new evidence is ……………

·         How a scientific explanation is …………… but may become more convincing when predictions based on it are confirmed later on

 

Matter – provisional – shells – compounds – pieces – broken – identical – out – electron – found – central – experimental – rearranged – nuclear – weights - simpler

 

 

4.5 DICTATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.6 COMPLETE THE TEXT: DEMOCRITUS

 

Democritus

Descrizione: demo.jpgDemocritus was born in Abdera, Greece in 460BC. He lived to be 90 years old, dying in the year 370BC. He studied natural …………… in Thrace, Athens, and Abdera. He enjoyed …………… geometry as well. Democritus travelled to many places including India, Egypt, and Babylon. Democritus was never married.



His mentor, Leucippus, originally came up …………… the atomic theory, but it was then adopted by Democritus. The atomic theory …………… that “The universe is composed of two elements: the atoms and the void in which they exist and move.” According to Democritus, atoms were ………….. quantities of matter. Democritus hypothesised that atoms …………… be destroyed, …………… in size, …………… and temperature, are always moving, and are invisible. He believed that there is an infinite number of atoms. This hypothesis was created in 465BC.



4.7 COMPLETE THE TEXT: DEMOCRITUS’S THEORY

 

This is Democritus's atomic theory exactly:

1. All matter consists of invisible …………… called atoms.

2. Atoms are indestructible.

3. Atoms are …………… but invisible.

4. Atoms are homogenous.

5. Atoms differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement.

->Solids are made of small, …………… atoms.

->Liquids are made of large, round atoms.

->Oils are made of very fine, small atoms that can easily …………… past each other.

4.8 FILL IN: DEMOCRITUS’S ATOMIC MODELDescrizione: demo__atom_model.gif

This was Democritus’s atomic model. It was simply a round …………… with no electrons, protons, or neutrons. Democritus created the first atomic model. His contribution helped people in …………… the idea of an atom, and helped other scientists further look into the science of the atom and its generic…………… .

 

Studying – with – particles – makeup – cannot – shape – understanding – slip – stated – differ – miniscule – philosophy – sphere – pointy – solid

4.9 FILL IN: Introduction to the quantum mechanical model (1)

"We must be clear that when it comes to atoms, language can only be used as in poetry." —Niels Bohr

Matter begins to …………… very strangely at the …………… level. Some of this behaviour is so counterintuitive that we can only talk about it with symbols and metaphors—like in poetry. For example, what does it mean to say an electron behaves like a particle and a ……………? Or that an electron does not exist in any one particular…, but that it is spread out throughout the entire atom?

If these questions strike you as…, they should! As it …, we are in good company. The physicist Niels Bohr also said, "Anyone who is not shocked by …………… theory has not understood it." So if you feel confused when learning about quantum ……………, know that the scientists who originally developed it were just as …………… .

Mechanics – wave – turns out – behave – location – quantum – odd – subatomic – befuddled

 

4.10 FILL IN: THE QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL (2)

The discovery that began quantum mechanics as a field of study was when physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck proved that …………… and matter can behave both as particles and…………… . This began the …………… of quantum mechanics, which is basically the physics of the very tiny. If …………… like electrons can behave as waves, it means that they don't have an exact …………… the way we would imagine for a traditional particle. Quantum mechanics tells us that you can't precisely know …………… the position and velocity of an electron at the same …………… .

This means that we shouldn't imagine electrons as …………… objects going around the atom. Instead, all we know is the …………… of finding an electron at a particular location. What we end up with is something called an electron …………… . An electron cloud is an …………… of space in which an electron is …………… to be found. It's like a 3-D graph showing the probability of finding the electron at each location in space.

Quantum mechanics also tells us that a particle has certain numbers (called quantum numbers) that represent its…………… . Just like how materials can be hard or soft, shiny or dull, particles have numbers to describe the properties. These include a particle's orbital quantum numbers, magnetic quantum number, and its spin. No two electrons in an atom can have exactly the same quantum …………… .

Properties – era – area – particles – likely – cloud – light – position – numbers – probability – single – both – waves - time

 

 

 

ACTIVITIES LESSON 4 KEYS

PRE-REQUISITES ACTIVITY 4. A (A CURA DELLO STUDENTE)

PRE-REQUISITES ACTIVITY 4. B

COMPLETE THE TABLE GIVING SOME INFORMATION ABOUT POSITION AND NATURE OF THE ELEMENTS MENTIONED

 

PLUM PUDDING MODEL

RUTHERFORD MODEL

Discovered by: THOMSON

Discovered  by: ERNEST RUTHERFORD AND HIS CO-WORKERS

Nucleus:

Nucleus: POSITIVE PART OF THE ATOM, LOCATED IN A CORE MASSIVE REGION

Electrons: NEGATIVELY CHARGED POINT PARTICLES CALLED CORPUSCLES

Electrons: NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES THAT ORBIT THE NUCLEUS IN CIRCULAR ORBITS

Charge: NEUTRAL

Charge: NEUTRAL

 

ACTIVITIES

4.1 COMPLETE THE TEXT: DALTON

 

John Dalton (1766-1844)

John Dalton developed an atomic theory in the 1800s. He did experiments, worked out some atomic weights and invented symbols for atoms and molecules. His most important conclusions are summarised below:

·         All matter is made of atoms

·         Atoms cannot be broken down into anything simpler

·         All the atoms of a particular element are identical to each other and different from the atoms of other elements

·         Atoms are rearranged in a chemical reaction

·         compounds are formed when two or more different kinds of atoms join together

Dalton's theory was developed and changed as new evidence was discovered.

 

4.2 FILL IN THOMSON

JJ Thomson's discovery of the electron

JJ Thompson discovered the electron in 1897. This showed that the atom contained smaller pieces whereas Dalton had thought that atoms could not be broken down into anything simpler.

4.3 FILL IN RUTHERFORD

Rutherford's nuclear atom

In 1911, Ernest Rutherford used experimental evidence to show that an atom must contain a central nucleus. This was further evidence that an atom contained smaller pieces.

4.4 FILL IN BOHR

Bohr's electron orbits

Niels Bohr further developed Rutherford's nucleus atom model. He used experimental evidence to support the idea that electrons occupy particular orbits or shells around the nucleus of an atom.

The development of the theory of atomic structure is an example of:

·         How a theory may change as new evidence is found

·         How a scientific explanation is provisional but may become more convincing when predictions based on it are confirmed later on

 

Matter – provisional – shells – compounds – pieces – broken – identical – out – electron – found – central – experimental – rearranged – nuclear – weights - simpler

 

 

4.5 DICTATION

 

 

4.6 COMPLETE THE TEXT: DEMOCRITUS

 

Democritus

Descrizione: demo.jpgDemocritus was born in Abdera, Greece in 460BC. He lived to be 90 years old, dying in the year 370BC. He studied natural philosophy in Thrace, Athens, and Abdera. He enjoyed studying geometry as well. Democritus travelled to many places including India, Egypt, and Babylon. Democritus was never married.



His mentor, Leucippus, originally came up with the atomic theory, but it was then adopted by Democritus. The atomic theory stated that “The universe is composed of two elements: the atoms and the void in which they exist and move.” According to Democritus, atoms were minuscule quantities of matter. Democritus hypothesised that atoms cannot be destroyed, differ in size, shape and temperature, are always moving, and are invisible. He believed that there is an infinite number of atoms. This hypothesis was created in 465BC.




4.7 COMPLETE THE TEXT: DEMOCRITUS’S THEORY

 

This is Democritus's atomic theory exactly:

1. All matter consists of invisible particles called atoms.

2. Atoms are indestructible.

3. Atoms are solid but invisible.

4. Atoms are homogenous.

5. Atoms differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement.

->Solids are made of small, pointy atoms.

->Liquids are made of large, round atoms.

->Oils are made of very fine, small atoms that can easily go past each other.

4.8 FILL IN: DEMOCRITUS’S ATOMIC MODELDescrizione: demo__atom_model.gif

This was Democritus’s atomic model. It was simply a round sphere with no electrons, protons, or neutrons. Democritus created the first atomic model. His contribution helped people in understanding the idea of an atom, and helped other scientist’s further look into the science of the atom and its generic makeup.

 

Studying – with – particles – makeup – cannot – shape – understanding – slip – stated – differ – miniscule – philosophy – sphere – pointy – solid

4.9 FILL IN Introduction to the quantum mechanical model (1)

"We must be clear that when it comes to atoms, language can only be used as in poetry." —Niels Bohr

Matter begins to behave very strangely at the subatomic level. Some of this behaviour is so counterintuitive that we can only talk about it with symbols and metaphors—like in poetry. For example, what does it mean to say an electron behaves like a particle and a wave? Or that an electron does not exist in any one particular location, but that it is spread out throughout the entire atom?

If these questions strike you as odd, they should! As it turns out, we are in good company. The physicist Niels Bohr also said, "Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it." So if you feel confused when learning about quantum mechanics, know that the scientists who originally developed it were just as befuddled.

Mechanics – wave – turns out – behave – location – quantum – odd – subatomic – befuddled

 

4.10 FILL IN: THE QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL (2)

The discovery that began quantum mechanics as a field of study was when physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck proved that light and matter can behave both as particles and as waves. This began the era of quantum mechanics, which is basically the physics of the very tiny. If particles like electrons can behave as waves, it means that they don't have an exact position the way we would imagine for a traditional particle. Quantum mechanics tells us that you can't precisely know both the position and velocity of an electron at the same time.

This means that we shouldn't imagine electrons as single objects going around the atom. Instead, all we know is the probability of finding an electron at a particular location. What we end up with is something called an electron cloud. An electron cloud is an area of space in which an electron is likely to be found. It's like a 3-D graph showing the probability of finding the electron at each location in space.

Quantum mechanics also tells us that a particle has certain numbers (called quantum numbers) that represent its properties. Just like how materials can be hard or soft, shiny or dull, particles have numbers to describe the properties. These include a particle's orbital quantum numbers, magnetic quantum number, and its spin. No two electrons in an atom can have exactly the same quantum number.

Properties – era – area – particles – likely – cloud – light – position – numbers – probability – single – both – waves - time